Merrill J, et al. LSM 2018 – Erythrocyte-bound C4d in combination with complement and autoantibody status for the monitoring of SLE.

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Ramsey-Goldman R, et al. LSM 2017 • Cell-bound complement activation products in SLE

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Buyon J, et al. LSM 2016 – Reduction in EC4d and anti-C1q antibodies associate with clinical improvement in SLE.

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Putterman C, et al. LSM. 2014. Cell_bound complement activation products in systemic lupus erythematosus.

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Wallace D, et al. LSM. 2016. Systemic lupus erythematosus and primary fibromyalgia can be distinguished by testing for cell-bound complement activation products.

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AVISE Lupus is indicated for the diagnosis of suspected SLE patients. AVISE CTD is indicated for differential diagnosis of autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

Clinical Validity

Ramsey-Goldman R et al.

Arthritis & Rheumatology 2019

Wallace D et al.

Lupus Science & Medicine 2016

Putterman C et al.

Lupus Science & Medicine 2014

Clinical Utility

Alexander RV et al.

Lupus Science & Medicine 2021

Liang E et al.

Lupus Science & Medicine 2020

Wallace D et al.

Lupus Science & Medicine 2019

Mossell J et al.

The Open Rheumatology Journal 2016

Health Economic Outcome Research

Clarke A et al.

ACR Open Rheumatology 2020

Analytical Validity

Dervieux T et al.

Journal of Immunological Methods 2017

SLE Review Articles

Mosca M et al.

Arthritis & Rheumatology 2019

Meacock R et al.

Pharmaeconomics 2013

Case Study

Lamichhane D et al.

Lupus 2016

Medical Society Guidelines

Kao A et al.

Arthritis and Rheumatology 2010


AVISE SLE Monitor is indicated for the ongoing assessment of SLE disease activity

Clinical Validity

Orbai, A.M., et al. (2015). Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus.

Clinical Validity

CB-CAPs Review Articles

Ramsey-Goldman, R., et al. (2017). Cell-bound complement activation products in SLE. Lupus Science and Medicine.

Ahearn, J., et al. (2017). Cell-bond complement activation products as lupus biomarkers: diagnosis, monitoring and stratification. Expert Review of Clinical Rheumatology.

PC4d is indicated for diagnosed SLE patients as a marker associated with thrombosis.

Clinical Validity

Avise MTX is indicated for RA patients receiving Methotrexate therapy as an objective measure of therapeutic exposure.

Clinical Validity

Dervieux, T., et al. (2013). Methotrexate polyglutamation in relation to infliximab pharmacokinetics in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 

Analytical Validity

Review Articles

Kremer J. et al. (2004). Toward a Better Understanding of Methotrexate. Arthritis & Rheumatology.

AVISE HCQ is indicated for SLE patients receiving Hydroxychloroquine therapy as an objective measure of drug exposure.

Clinical Validity

Petri, M., et al. (2020). Hydroxychloroquine Blood Levels Predict Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy. Arthritis & Rheumatology.

Costedoat-Chalumeau, N., et al. (2013). Hydroxychloroquine in systemic lupus erythematosus: results of a French multicentre controlled trial (PLUS Study). Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

Analytical Validity

AVISE HCQ Review Articles

Arriens, C., et al. (2020). Cell-bound complement activation products associate with lupus severity in SLE.  Lupus Science & Medicine.

Methotrexate polyglutamates (MTXPGs)

Anti-Carbamylated Protein Antibodies (Anti-CarP)

Weinstein, A., et al. (2019). Reevaluating Serologic Markers of Poor Prognostic Factors in Rheumatoid Arthritis. The Journal of Rheumatology.

Selected Abstracts

Petri, et al. 2020. Role of Platelet C4d in Thrombosis and Lupus Nephritis. Arthritis Rheumatol.